What Is Column?
A compression member, i.e., column, is an important element ofÂ every reinforcedÂ concrete structure. These are used to transfer a load of superstructure to the foundation safely.
Mainly columns, struts, and pedestals are used as compression members in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories, and many more such structures.
A column is defined as a vertical compression member who is mainly subjected to the effective length andÂ axial loadsÂ of which exceeds three times its least lateral dimension.
The compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal. The compression member who is inclined or horizontal and is subjected to axial loads is called Strut. Struts are used in trusses.
The function of columnsÂ is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downwards to transfer it to aÂ foundation. Apart from the wall performs the following functions also:
 It encloses building areas into different compartments and provides privacy.
 It provides safety from burglary and insects.
 It keeps the building warm in cools in summer and winter.
What Is Beam?
The beam is a structural element that stands against the bending. MainlyÂ beamÂ carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it.
The beam is called a wall plate or sill plateÂ that carries the transmits and load it to the girders,Â columns, or walls. It is attached with.
In the early centuries, timbers were the most preferred material to be used as a beam for this structural support purpose, now to bear the force along with carrying vertical gravitational force, now they are made up of aluminum, steel, or other such materials.
In actual means, beams are structural materials, which bear the sheer force of the load and the bending moment.
To carry on the more tension and load,Â prestressedÂ concreteÂ beams are widely used nowadays in theÂ foundationÂ of bridges and other such humongous structures.
Several famous beams used nowadays are supported Beam, Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous Beam, Overhanging Beam.
What is Wall?
Wall is a structural element that divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. Generally, the wall is differentiated as two types of outerwall and innerwall.
Outerwalls give an enclosure to the house for shelter, and innerwalls help to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. Inner walls are also called as Partition walls.
Walls are built to partition the living area into different parts. They impart privacy and protection against temperature, rain, and theft.
What Is Slab?
A slabÂ is constructed to provide flat surfaces, typically horizontal,Â inÂ building roofs, floors, bridges, and other types of structures.
The slab could be supported byÂ walls, by reinforcedÂ concreteÂ beams normallyÂ cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, either byÂ columnsÂ or from the ground.
A slab is a plate element having a depth (D), very small as compared to its length and width. A slab is used as floor or roof in buildings, carry distribution load uniformly.
Slab May Be
 Simply Supported.
 Continuos.
 Cantilever.
Different Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab
 Column = SelfÂ Weight x Number of floors
 Beams = Self Weight per running meter
 Wall Load Per Running Meter
 Total Load on Slab (Dead Load + Live Load +Wind Load + SelfWeight)
Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design.
These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field.
The most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like STAAD Pro or ETABS.
For professional structural design practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations.
Load Calculation on Column:
We know that the Selfweight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m^{3}, which is equivalent to 24.54 kn/m^{3}and the Selfweight of Steel is around 7850 kg/m^{3}. ( Note: 1 Kilonewton Is Equal to 101.9716 Kilograms)
So, if we assume a column size of 300 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 2.55 (why 2.55 so, 3 m column hight – beam size) meters standard height, the selfweight of the column is around 1000 kg per floor, that id equal to 10 kN.
How to Load Calculation on Column?
 Size of column Height 2.55 m, Length = 300 mm, Width = 600 mm
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 2.55 =0.459 mÂł
 Weight of Concrete = 0.459 x 2400 = 1101.60 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%)Â in Concrete =Â 0.459 x 1% x 7850Â = 36.03 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 1101.60 + 36.03 = 1137.63 kg = 11.12 KN
While doing calculations, we assume the self weight of columns is betweenÂ 10 to 12 kN per floor.
Beam Load Calculation:
We adopt the same method of calculations for beam also. We assume each meter of the beam has dimensions of 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness. Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has dimension
How to Beam Load Calculation?
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 mÂł
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 =Â 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
So, the selfweight will be aroundÂ 4.51 kNÂ per running meter.
How to Wall Load Calculation:
Here, the follows steps forÂ wall loading calculations
 we, know that the Density of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m^{3}.
 For a 9 inch (230 mm) thick Brick wall of 3.55meter height and a length of 1 meter,
 The load / running meter to be equal toÂ 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter,
 which is equivalent toÂ 11.50 kN/meter.
This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique.
For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete (ACC)Â blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 650 kg per cubic meter.
The load/running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 3.55 x 650= 530.725 kg
If you are using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 5.20 kN/meter, use of this block can significantly reduce the cost of the project.
How to Slab Load Calculation:
 Let, Assume the slab has a thickness ofÂ 150 mm.
 So, the Selfweight of each square meter of the slab would be
 Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN.
 Now, If we consider the Floor Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter, superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, andÂ Wind Load as per Is 875 Near about 2 kNÂ per meter.
So, from the above data, we can estimate the slab load to be aroundÂ 8 to 9 kN per square meter.
 Column Design Calculations PDF: Click Here
 Steel Structure Design Calculation PDF: Click Here
 How to Calculate Load of a Building PDF

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Structural Elements and Load Calculations
What is the purpose of a column in a reinforced concrete structure?
Columns are essential elements that transfer the load of a superstructure to the foundation securely. They provide vertical support and stability to buildings, bridges, and various structures.
How do columns differ from struts and pedestals?
Columns are vertical compression members subjected to axial loads, typically with an effective length exceeding three times their least lateral dimension. Struts are inclined or horizontal compression members, often used in trusses. Pedestals are compression members with an effective length less than three times their least lateral dimension.
What functions do walls serve in a structure?
Walls not only divide spaces into compartments but also provide privacy, safety from burglary and insects, and insulation for maintaining desired temperatures.
What materials are commonly used in beam construction?
While timbers were historically preferred, modern beams are often made of materials like aluminum, steel, or prestressed concrete to bear vertical gravitational forces and resist bending.
What are the different types of slabs, and how are they supported?
Slabs, used in roofs, floors, and bridges, can be simply supported, continuous, or cantilevered. They are supported by walls, reinforced concrete beams, structural steel beams, or columns.
How are loads calculated for columns, beams, walls, and slabs?
Column loads are determined by considering the selfweight and dimensions of the column. Beam loads are calculated based on the dimensions and materials used. Wall loads depend on the type of wall and materials. Slab loads include selfweight, floor finishing, live loads, and wind loads.
What assumptions are made in structural loading calculations?
Assumptions include the density of materials, dimensions of structural elements, and distribution of loads. Professional structural design software like STAAD Pro or ETABS can aid in accurate calculations.
How are column and beam loads calculated in practice?
Column loads are estimated based on the selfweight of concrete and steel, while beam loads are calculated similarly, considering the dimensions and materials used.
What factors influence wall loading calculations?
Wall loading calculations depend on the type of wall (e.g., brick, aerated concrete blocks) and their dimensions, along with the density of the materials used.
How are slab loads determined, and what factors are considered?
Slab loads include selfweight, floor finishing, live loads, and wind loads per square meter. Factors such as slab thickness and type of finishing materials are taken into account for accurate calculations.