## Estimation for Building Works

The quantities of various items such as earthwork in excavation, foundation concrete, brickwork in foundation and plinth, brickwork in the superstructure, etc. can be estimated by any of the following three methods

**Centre Line Method****Long and Short Wall Method****Crossing MethodÂ**

**1. Centre Line Method**

In the **center line method** of estimation, the total center line length of walls in a building is first calculated.

This approach, often referred to as the **centre line method of estimation**, involves multiplying the center line length with the breadth and depth of the respective item to determine the total quantity.

Fir different sections of walls in a building, the center-line length for each type shall be worked out separately.

In the case of verandah walls or partition joining with the main wall, the center-line length shall be reduced by half of the breadth of the layer of the main wall that joins with the partition or verandah wall at the same level.

A number of such pints arc simnel first to calculate the center-line length. By this method, estimates may be prepared more quickly, and this method is as accurate as of the other methods.

Only in the case of an unsymmetrical wall, which is generally rare, no advantage may be claimed by this method over others as the center-line length varies at every layer. But to estimate circular, hexagonal, octagonal, etc. shaped buildings, this method shall specially be adopted.

**2. Long and Short Wall Method**

In the **long wall short wall method**, the longer walls in a building (typically in one direction) are considered as long walls, while the shorter or partition walls, perpendicular to the long walls, are viewed as short walls.

This method, which sometimes involves the **long wall short wall method formula**, measures the long walls from out-to-out and the short walls from in-to-in for a specific layer of work

These lengths of long and short walls arc multiplied separately by the breadth and height of the corresponding layer and are added to get the quantity.

Such lengths of long and short walls vary in every layer of footing. To calculate the lengths of long and short walls determine first their centre to centre lengths individually from the plan.

Then the length of the longwall, out-to-out may be calculated after adding half breadth of a wall at each end with its centre to centre length.

Thus the length of the short wall measured in-to-in may find out after subtraction half breadth at each end from its centre to centre length.

Length of long-wall generally decreases from earthwork to brickwork in the superstructure and in the case of a short wall, its length increases.

In some of the working examples, it may be noticed that a wall is considered as a short wall at one end and as a long wall at the other end. Such a case arises in a wall that joins as a long wall with another long wall previously considered.

The joining end of the wall later considered as long wall is actually treated as a short end, and such a wall is named as Long-Short wall.

**Length of Long Wall**Â = Center to Center Length of wall + Half Breadth on One Side + Half Breadth on the Other Side- Length ofÂ
**Short Wall**Â = Centre to Centre Length â€“ One breadth. **Note:Â**The length of the long wall usually decreases from earthwork to brickwork, and the length of the short wall is increased.

**3. Crossing MethodÂ **

In the **crossing method of estimation**, one calculates the overall perimeter of the building and subtracts from this four times the wall’s thickness to determine the center-line length. This method is now rarely used.

**Examples,**

**Example, By Centre-Line MethodÂ **

To estimate the quantities using the **centre line method formula**, first calculate the total length of the center-line. This length remains consistent across varying widths of works. Then, multiply this constant center-line length with the respective breadth and height.

Thus quantities of all items may be calculated easily.

The total length of center-line =Â 2 **[** (3m + (2 x ( 30 cm/2) ) + (2.5m + (2 x ( 30 cm/2) )**]**

The total length of center-line =Â 12.2 m

### Elements of Building Estimate use **Centre-Line MethodÂ **

Sr. No.Â |
DescriptionÂ |
No. |
Length M. |
Breadth M. |
Height M. |
Qty. |
Total |
Unit |

1 | Earthwork in excavation | 1 | 12.2 | 0.7 | 0.75 | 6.405 | 6.405 |
Cu.m. |

2 | Lime Concrete in Foundation | 1 | 12.2 | 0.7 | 0.15 | 1.281 | 1.281 |
Cu.m. |

3 | Brickwork in foundation and Plinth | |||||||

(a)Â 50 cm layer | 1 | 12.2 | 0.5 | 0.2 | 1.22 | |||

(b)Â 40 cm layer | 1 | 12.2 | 0.4 | 1 | 4.88 | |||

6.1 |
Cu.m. |

**Example, By Long and Short wall MethodÂ **

Using The **short wall long wall method** is a straightforward method to estimate the quantity of different work items.**solved examples**, we can determine the Center to Center length of long walls as 3 + (2 x 0.115) = 3.3 m.

Center to Center length of long walls = 2.5 + (2 x 0.115) = 2.80 m

The length of long walls out-to-out and short walls in-to-in vary in every laver of footing. To calculate the length of long walls add a half breadth of that layer at each end with the centre to centre length and for short walls subtract half breadth of the layer from each end.

Lengths thus obtained may also be verified from the plan as shown in the above fig.

### Elements of Building Estimate use **Long and Short wall MethodÂ **

Sr. No.Â |
DescriptionÂ |
No. |
Length M. |
Breadth M. |
Height M. |
Qty. |
Total |
Unit |

1 |
Earthwork in excavationÂ |
|||||||

Long Wall | 2 | Â 4.00 | 0.700 | 0.750 | 4.200 | |||

Short Wall | 2 | 2.10 | 0.700 | 0.750 | 2.205 | |||

6.405 |
Cu.m. |
|||||||

2 |
Lime Concrete in Foundation |
|||||||

Long Wall | 2 | Â 4.00 | 0.700 | 0.150 | 0.840 | |||

Short Wall | 2 | 2.10 | 0.700 | 0.150 | 0.441 | |||

1.281 |
Cu.m. |
|||||||

3 |
Brickwork in foundation and plinthÂ |
|||||||

Long Wall |
||||||||

1st footing 50 cm | 2 | Â 3.80 | 0.500 | 0.200 | 0.760 | |||

2nd footing 40 cm | 2 | Â 3.70 | 0.400 | 1.000 | 2.960 | |||

Short Wall |
||||||||

1st footing 50 cm | 2 | Â 2.30 | 0.500 | 0.200 | 0.460 | |||

2nd footing 40 cm | 2 | Â 2.40 | 0.400 | 1.000 | 1.920 | |||

6.1 |
Cu.m. |

**Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Building Estimation Methods**

**What are the main estimation methods used in building construction?**

The main estimation methods used in building construction include the Centre Line Method, Long and Short Wall Method, and Crossing Method.

**What is the Centre Line Method of estimation?**

The Centre Line Method involves calculating the total center line length of walls in a building and multiplying this length by the breadth and depth of the respective item to determine the total quantity.

**How does the Long and Short Wall Method work?**

In the Long and Short Wall Method, longer walls (long walls) are measured from out-to-out, while shorter or partition walls (short walls) are measured from in-to-in. These lengths are multiplied by the breadth and height of the corresponding layer to calculate the quantity.

**When is the Crossing Method used in estimation?**

The Crossing Method involves calculating the overall perimeter of the building and subtracting four times the wall’s thickness to determine the center-line length. This method is now rarely used in modern construction practices.

**Which method is suitable for estimating quantities in circular or irregularly shaped buildings?**

The Centre Line Method is particularly suitable for estimating quantities in circular, hexagonal, octagonal, etc., shaped buildings due to its simplicity and ability to handle varying wall lengths.

**How are quantities calculated using these estimation methods?**

Quantities are calculated by multiplying the determined lengths (either center-line length or long and short wall lengths) by the respective breadth and height of the construction item.

**Which method offers quicker estimation?**

The Centre Line Method is often quicker for estimation as it involves calculating a constant center-line length and multiplying it by the breadth and height, eliminating the need for separate calculations for long and short walls.

**Are there any specific scenarios where one method is preferred over others?**

Each method has its advantages depending on the building’s shape and complexity. For instance, the Centre Line Method is preferred for circular or irregularly shaped buildings, while the Long and Short Wall Method may be more suitable for rectangular structures with clear long and short walls.

**How can quantities estimated using these methods be verified?**

Quantities obtained through these methods can be verified by comparing them with the building plan and ensuring consistency with the dimensions and layout.

**Are there any considerations for adapting these methods to different layers of construction?**

Yes, the lengths of long and short walls, as well as the center-line length, may vary for different layers of construction (e.g., from earthwork to brickwork). Adjustments are made accordingly to accurately estimate quantities for each layer.